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DELIVERED AT THE 

EIGHTH ANNIVERSARY 

OF 

THE DUKE ENDOWMENT 



Digitized by 


the Internet Archive 






in 2014 







https://archive.org/details/addressesdeliverOOduke 



EIGHTH ANNIVERSARY 

THE DUKE ENDOWMENT 

Established By 

JAMES B. DUKE 



ADDRESSES 

DELIVERED AT THE 

EIGHTH ANNIVERSARY 

OF 

THE DUKE ENDOWMENT 



Sponsored by Friends of Mr Duke in 
North Carolina and South Carolina 



held at 

The First Methodist Episcopal Church, South 
charlotte, north carolina 

December 11, 1932 



Program 



The Rev. W. W. Peele, D.D., Presiding 



«o» 



2:25 Organ Prelude . . 

2:35 Hymn 

2:40 Invocation 

2:45 Address 

2:55 Address 

3:05 Double Quartet . 

3:10 Address 



Toccata and Fugue in D Minor 
Johann Sebastian Bach 
Lawrence Clarke Apgar, Or- 
ganist and Carillonneur to 
Duke University. 

Number 208: / Love Thy King- 
dom. Lord. 

Doctor Walter L. Lingle, Presi- 
dent. Davidson College. 

The Duke Endowment in North 
Carolina — The Honorable O. 
Max Gardner, Governor of 
North Carolina. 

The Duke Endowment in South 
Carolina — The Honorable 
Ibra C. Blackwood, Governor 
of South Carolina. 

Thanks Be To God 

Stanley Dickson 
Arr. by Sumner Salter 
Group from Men's Glee Club 
of Duke University. 

The Duke Endowment: Its Ori- 
gin and Purpose — Judge Wil- 
liam R. Perkins, Vice Chair- 
man, Board of Trustees of 
The Duke Endowment. 



Program (Continued) 



3:25 Organ Dreams Hugh McAmis 

Mr. Apgar 

3:30 Remarks The Interest of The Duke En- 
dowment in Higher Education 
— Doctor W. J. McGlothUn, 
President, Furman University. 

3:35 Remarks The Interest of The Duke En- 
dowment in Medical Educa- 
tion — Doctor Robert Wilson, 
Dean, Medical College of the 
State of South Carolina. 

3:40 Remarks The Superannuate Minister and 

the Rural Church — The Rev- 
erend J. B. Hurley. 

3:45 Remarks The Interest of The Duke En- 
dowment in the Care of De- 
pendent Children — The Rev- 
erend C. K. Proctor, Superin- 
tendent, Oxford Orphanage. 

3:50 Organ Scherzo Eugene Gigout 

Mr. Apgar 

3:55 Address James B. Duke: Man and Citi- 
zen — The Honorable Clyde 
R. Hoey. 

4:10 Double Quartet . The Recessional De Koven 

4:15 Closing Prayer . . .The Right Reverend Edwin D. 

Mouzon. 



4:20 Organ Postlude. .Finale from Sonata I 

Mr. Apgar Mendelssohn 



radio broadcast of this 
program was made possible 
through the courtesy of Radio 
Station W BT, Charlotte, North 
Carolina, of the Columbia Broad- 
casting System, Mr, Earle J, 
Gluck, Manager, 



The Duke Endowment In 



North Carolina 

The Honorable O. Max Gardner 
Governor of North Carolina 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

NORTH Carolina pauses gratefully today to 
contemplate the philanthropies of James B. 
Duke. Rockefeller and Carnegie alone exceeded him 
in public benefactions. Our people could be neither 
just nor fair-minded were they to forget or fail to 
appreciate what this man has done for the good of 
our Commonwealth. 

Duke was an empire builder. His name was well 
known in all the markets of the world. Although 
he held no public office, he sent his ambassadors of 
commerce to the ends of the earth. And yet, at the 
zenith of his power he remembered the place of his 
birth. I can hear him say in the evening of his life: 
"Let me look at the rock from whence I was hewn." 
North Carolina, which had contributed him to the 
world and furnished him the stage upon which 
many of his dreams were realized, received the major 
legacies from his hands for its social, intellectual and 
humanitarian enrichment. 



6 



The Eighth Anniversary 



I would not presume to tell you in detail what 
The Duke Endowment has done for our people. 
Many of you are better equipped to tell the story. 
It is my purpose, however, to discuss the manner in 
which this man gave his millions and to analyze the 
spirit and meaning of what he has done in North 
Carolina. 

Education is one of the major purposes of the 
Endowment. Hence at Durham, the university 
bearing his name has been constructed. Its physical 
equipment is of unsurpassed beauty. To it, through 
the means of a permanent endowment, he is bring- 
ing some of the master minds of this generation. 
And because Davidson College, supported and 
maintained by the Presbyterian Church, had been 
building nobility into the character of young men 
for a long time, this institution was included in his 
benevolence. The Johnson C. Smith University of 
Charlotte, with a long and honorable history of 
cultural education for the Negroes of America, was 
selected by Mr. Duke as the institution of that race 
to profit through his philanthropies. 

However, in no sphere of his benefactions in 
North Carolina does the public come into more 
practical or thrilling contact than in hospitalization. 
The hospital which he made an adjunct of Duke 



The Duke Endowment 



7 



University is in itself sufficient to attest to his in- 
terest in this field of public welfare. 

But that is only suggestive of the provisions which 
he made for the care and treatment of the sick. Not 
only there but throughout our State hospitals have 
been erected largely through the aid of this Endow- 
ment, with modern equipment and competent med- 
ical and nursing staffs. This year 47,000 of our 
indigent sick and poor have received aid in these 
hospitals, and during the life of this trust so far in 
North Carolina approximately $3,000,000 has 
been expended, of which almost two million dol- 
lars was for this charity service. 

In North Carolina also institutions for the care 
and training of orphans have received from this 
Endowment more than $500,000. ''Every effort,*' 
Mr. Duke said, * 'should be made to safeguard these 
wards of society/' 

Our State has reaped also from his generosity a 
half million dollars invested in rural Methodist 
Churches, and also for the care of superannuated 
ministers of the Gospel more than $150,000 has 
been so far distributed. 

Mr. Duke did not seek to upset what other men 
had done; he desired rather to enter into their la- 
bors. Although a man who had spent the major 



8 



The Eighth Anniversary 



part of his life in the thick of industrial activity, he 
was keenly aware of the progress that had been made 
by other men in the intellectual, social and religious 
life of our State. Therefore, when he built Duke 
University he wished it to be a fulfillment of the 
ambition of those who had founded and worked for 
Trinity College. This idea of supplementing the 
work of other men, this willingness to assist in the 
fulfillment of their dreams, characterized every de- 
tail of his philanthrophy. The arms of The Duke 
Endowment embrace many institutions that are the 
pride of North Carolina. In the naming of them 
the imagination is fired with the possibilities for in- 
finite good to humanity. Surely Mr. Duke has cre- 
ated an instrumentality for great good, which with- 
out regard to race or creed will bless our people for 
generations to come. 

As we gather here the question naturally arises: 
what will most surely and adequately perpetuate 
the memory of this man? I venture to answer this 
question. The greatest memorial to this man is the 
daily prayer of thanksgiving that goes up from the 
befriended child, the youth who is given greater op- 
portunity, and from the public wards of pain where 
science is restoring health and peace to stricken 
humanity. 



The Duke Endowment 



9 



North Carolina is feeling today many unusual 
trends in its economic and social life. Our people 
have felt the lash of unkind circumstances. We have 
had our share of the distress and heartaches of our 
times. It is encouraging to know that the benefits 
of The Duke Endowment will continue to aid and 
comfort our people in the hard days that are ahead. 

It is a trite thing to say that our Commonwealth 
stands at the crossroads. Yet as one who has been 
intimately associated with the public life of North 
Carolina for more than twenty years, I feel in my 
heart that we are now making decisions that will 
mark and color our destiny for many years. Much 
of our future depends upon the wisdom of political 
leadership. But much also depends upon the atti- 
tude of men of great wealth toward their fellow- 
men. As we face an uncharted future it is my sin- 
cere hope that all men of wealth will be deeply con- 
victed of their duty to mankind. 

There is something splendid to me about this 
citizen of the world who walked in Wall Street and 
in Lombard Street but who could not forget the red 
foothills of Durham County. There is something 
deeper than a superficial loyalty in a man who gath- 
ers wealth from the whole world and lays it in 
gratitude at the feet of the State that nurtured both 
him and his father before him. Regardless of his 



10 



The Eighth Anniversary 



far-flung activities Mr. Duke was a North Caro- 
linian. No matter where he went he could not for- 
get the problems and the needs of our people. Our 
people were his people — our tradition was in his 
blood. 

Men are what they are largely because of condi- 
tions under which they live and labor, the life cur- 
rent about them, the prevailing philosophies of the 
time. Mr. Duke began his life in an unsocial era. 
The mold of his career was set in the last quarter 
of the last century. This was the golden age of 
material advance, of wealth amassing by the pio- 
neers in the new industrialism, of scientific discovery, 
of inventive genius — but it was night-time for the 
purely social and human values. Duke, himself, 
was a frontiersman forging ahead under the mo- 
mentum of an intensely individualistic will. In his 
early days rugged self-reliance was the chief capital 
asset: the race was for the swift, the battle for the 
strong. The people of North Carolina, therefore, 
rejoice that this captain of industry, in the maturity 
of his judgment, detached himself from his contem- 
poraries and wholeheartedly fell in with the warm 
currents of a more friendly philosophy. We are in- 
deed glad that above the sounds of industrial con- 
flict he heard the small but nevertheless compelling 
voice of humanity. 



The Duke Endowment In 



South Carolina 



The Honorable Ibra C. Blackwood 
Governor of South Carolina 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

rrsHE DUKE ENDOWMENT in South Caro- 



Duke to confer upon the people of the two Caro- 
linas and their posterity the advantages accruing 
from a great endowment. Such is the nature of The 
Duke Endowment that the geographic lines sepa- 
rating the two Carolinas effect but slight difference 
in the benefits to the two states. Mr. Duke's dream 
was to do something great for the territory wherein 
were operated those activities that largely produced 
his fortune. The document wherein is given expres- 
sion to this great plan is unique and distinguished 
for its clarity and simplicity. Every sentence clearly 
expresses the idea that it was the purpose of Mr. 
Duke not to claim for himself or for any individual 
in whom he might be particularly interested any 
benefits upon any contingency that might subse- 
quently arise. This document is free from re- 
versionary terms. It was manifestly his purpose 




beneficent plan of J. B. 



12 



The Eighth Anniversary 



through the avenues of religion, education and 
hospitilization to make his great donation, serve 
humanity in its greatest needs and to the fullest 
possible extent that his endowment could be em- 
ployed. It was his expressed wish to develop the 
resources of the two Carolinas, to contribute to the 
wisdom and promote the happiness of their people. 
No higher purpose could prompt an individual in 
the execution of an act. So, the plan having for its 
origin such an unquestioned motive, since the donor 
stands upon solid rock upon an elevation, removed 
from designs of possible personal gain, nothing re- 
mains to make it a success but to provide for its 
conduct wisely and honestly. For this he provided 
by creating a self-perpetuating Board of Trustees 
and bestowing upon the Endowment the quality of 
unlimited duration. Thus it is that South Carolina 
shares with North Carolina that liberal percentage 
of the Endowment that is to be definitely devoted 
to the construction of hospitals for the care and 
treatment of those who could not otherwise enjoy 
hospital treatment and for the treatment of charity 
patients therein. This is a most beneficent and 
humane arrangement, for many are they who are 
poor and destitute who become stricken and afflicted 
at such time and place and under such circumstances 
that their plight is helpless. It has ever been the 



The Duke Endowment 



13 



unhappy experience of hospitals to be required to 
care for charity patients whom they could not turn 
away. This unfortunate circumstance has rendered 
it impossible for many hospitals to operate success- 
fully. By this generous provision this very pressing 
demand is largely satisfied. With North Carolina 
the percentage of the Endowment that is to be de- 
voted to orphans and the maintenance of orphan 
homes is shared by South Carolina as her needs may 
appear to the Board of Trustees. A shadow that 
has herebefore spread across the Carolinas, because 
there were in the midst those who were lonely, desti- 
tute and defenseless, has been lifted, without addi- 
tional public expense. 

Among the institutions of learning favored by 
this Endowment is Furman University located in 
the City of Greenville. Furman enjoys an honor- 
able and worthy record for distinguished service by 
unselfish teachers and ardent supporters. From her 
classrooms have gone forth into the varied walks of 
life many illustrious citizens. This institution is 
warmly cherished by thousands of loyal and devoted 
alumni. Five per cent of the entire net proceeds of 
the Endowment is to be paid annually to this insti- 
tution. This almost guarantees its successful opera- 
tion and continuous existence. The Endowment is 
of such a structure that it will almost certainly grow 



14 



The Eighth Anniversary 



and with its growth there is to be its attendant ex- 
pansion in hospitilization and orphanage accom- 
modations. This bids fair in the stretch of years to 
reach a point where charity patients and orphans 
may depend entirely upon this source for care and 
maintenance and with the growth of this colossal 
Endowment Furman will keep apace in the benefits 
that she enjoys. All intelligent patriotic South 
Carolinians gladly recognize The Duke Endowment 
as a boon to their State. The interests, the hopes, 
the impulses and aspirations of the people of this 
great State, rich in tradition and historic back- 
ground, but somewhat retarded in economic prog- 
ress, are so entwined about the life and progress of 
The Duke Endowment that it will always receive 
the sympathy and solicitude of South Carolinians. 

South Carolina through 56 institutions, located 
in 22 of the 46 counties has, during the past eight 
years, received the sum of $2,792,391. Of this sum 
Furman University has received $469,677. Sixteen 
orphan homes have received $281,027 for the care 
of orphans and half orphans and the sum of 
$2,041,687 has been appropriated to 39 hospitals 
for the care of free patients and for construction and 
equipment. This is a relief to South Carolina citi- 
zens and taxpayers to the extent of more than 
$2,000,000. One of the heavy tax burdens in any 



The Duke Endowment 



15 



commonwealth is the requirement to provide free 
hospitilization and orphan homes. This is a duty 
resting upon the State that cannot be escaped. This 
burden has been graciously lifted from the shoulders 
of a struggling people. 

There are two South Carolinians on the Board, 
and, through them, South Carolina people feel that 
they are not strangers to the Board. B. E. Geer, one 
of the most loved and honored of South Carolina's 
sons, and W. S. Lee, who, as a young engineer, lent 
inspiration to Mr. Duke, and Doctor Gil Wilie, 
who initiated the Duke Power Company, were 
designated members of the Board by Mr. Duke. 
These men are viewed with pride and esteem by the 
people of South Carolina. In the light of this cir- 
cumstance, I feel sure that I can truthfully assert 
that the Board occupies a warm and affectionate 
place in the thought of our people. The people of 
our State may temporarily fail to manifest that de- 
gree of appreciation that is deserved but certain it is 
that a State whose people have contributed so much 
to the cause of liberty and the preservation of the 
rights of the people and have ever been ready to de- 
fend the cause of justice and honor will not suffer 
The Duke Endowment to experience extended lack 
of appreciation. 



The Duke Endowment: Its 
Origin and Purpose 

Judge William Perkins 
Vice Chairman, Board of Trustees of 
The Duke Endowment 

Ladies and Gentlemen of My Seen and Unseen 
Audience: 

THE Trustees of The Duke Endowment, for 
whom I speak, with genuine pleasure avail 
themselves of the kind invitation of the Commit- 
tee on Arrangements to be present and participate 
in these memorial exercises. To them the occasion 
is one of exceeding gladness and significance. It com- 
memorates a life and a cause that are dear to their 
hearts. It manifests the rising tide of public recog- 
nition and appreciation that is just and inevitable 
for such a magnificent enactment on the stage of 
human events. 

Most appropriately these services are being held 
in Charlotte, where Mr. Duke had his southern 
home, where he planned and labored and where 
there were finally drafted the documents establish- 
ing the Endowment. Thereby Old Mecklenburg 
County, so long heralded as the birthplace of our 



The Duke Endowment 



17 



independence, may also justly proclaim itself the 
cradle of one of the very greatest philanthropies of 
all time. 

The story begins with the birth in this state 
on December 23, 1856, of a boy named James 
Buchanan Duke, who was to be, as his life amply 
proved, a veritable Christmas present, not only to 
his parents but also to humanity itself. 

Twenty months later his mother died. A few 
years thereafter his father shouldered a musket and 
marched away to fight in the War Between the 
States. And the child came thus early to know from 
experience the meaning of orphanage and poverty. 

By great good fortune the lad's formative period 
was spent in the intimate companionship of his 
father, who was a wise counselor and a Methodist 
of the old school. This was the key that unlocked 
the future. Father and son proved kindred spirits 
and impressions for good were made which endured 
and came into full fruition. All through his life 
Mr. Duke was wont to state, with unfeigned pride: 
'*My old Daddy always said that if he amounted to 
anything it was due to the Methodist circuit riders," 
and 'If I amount to anything in this world I owe 
it to my Daddy and the Methodist Church/* 



18 



The Eighth Anniversary 



I do not believe any son ever cared more for a 
father. As the years sped it ripened into a veneration 
beautiful to behold. I could but marvel at the man 
this father must have been, thus to influence his 
great descendant. It made me realize the responsi- 
bilities, the possibilities, of fatherhood as nothing 
else, and brought an intense yearning that my life, 
each father's life, might deserve and receive such a 
blessing. 

Ere manhood had been reached the youth became 
a partner in his father's business, and it was not 
long thereafter until those who knew him perceived 
that he had been cast in an heroic mold, created for 
big things. 

His first great achievement constituted a major 
development of the agricultural resources of the two 
Carolinas and a contribution of the very first magni- 
tude to the industrial growth of our nation. He 
made tobacco, a plant indigenous to those states, 
one of our largest and most valuable crops, expand- 
ing its sales to the four corners of the earth, creating 
jobs for thousands and adding millions to land 
values, besides yielding large returns in revenue to 
the government and in dividends to investors. 

This brought him wealth, but not without a 
sense of the responsibility which should accompany 



The Duke Endowment 



19 



wealth; for it caused him to say to his intimate 
friends: *1 am going to give a good part of what 
I make to the Lord/' It also brought him fame, 
but not without the bitter denunciation that in this 
country unfortunately attends such success; and that 
caused him to say: ''Had I done this in England I 
would have been knighted; here they seek to put 
me in jail/* 

His next achievement was still another employ- 
ment of his talent and means for the benefit of the 
two Carolinas. He developed the water powers of 
the river that runs hard by this city and attracted 
enterprises for the use of the energy thus created, 
until the Piedmont section of these states grew and 
blossomed as perhaps no other section of this country 
at the same time. Its name became a synonym of 
progress and prosperity. 

He was in the midst of this second undertaking 
when I had the high privilege of becoming associ- 
ated with him as his legal adviser, and thus placed 
in a position where I am able to speak from inti- 
mate, personal knowledge. I soon found that his 
mind was busy and burdened with the sense of his 
stewardship as a man of wealth. He talked with me 
often and at length on the subject, asking the very 
practical questions, what he should do and how he 
should do it. And then there came a morning I shall 



20 



The Eighth Anniversary 



never forget when, with beaming countenance, he 
told me that overnight there had come to him the 
very plan he had been seeking. It was that his phil- 
anthropy should take the form of giving these water 
power developments to the communities they served, 
in a manner whereby these communities through 
these developments could finance their own charities 
by simply doing business in the usual and ordinary 
way. 

He was enraptured with the splendid conception 
which has since captivated the world by its origi- 
nality and munificence. He felt it met the test of 
real assistance by helping others to help themselves. 
And he illustrated by saying it was easy enough to 
give money, but the best of all gifts was a job, that 
his method really afforded these communities a way 
whereby they could work out their own salvation. 

Of course there was pointed out to Mr. Duke the 
possible danger of basing a large perpetual charity 
on a business that might change, indeed, upon a 
public utility that was subject to popular regulation 
and already being made a target by those who 
wished to put government into business. But such 
arguments caused him no dismay, so full was his 
confidence that he could entrust his benevolence to 
the people whom it served. He felt sure they would 
understand and appreciate, and in so doing see that 



The Duke Endowment 



21 



the structure he erected for their benefit was pro- 
tected and preserved. 

In this great faith he went forward boldly, ma- 
turing his plans with the enthusiasm of a boy, over 
the many fateful years, embracing the World War 
and its aftermath, which intervened between the con- 
ception and the announcement of his plans. And 
when there occurred the public offering of his great 
Endowment, which we celebrate today, the Inden- 
ture establishing it contained this unique and force- 
ful statement on this subject from his pen: 

**My ambition is that the revenues of such developments 
shall administer to the social welfare as the operation of such 
developments is administering to the economic welfare of 
the communities which they serve. With these views in 
mind, I recommend the securities of the Southern Power 
System (The Duke Power Company and its subsidiary com- 
panies) as the prime investment for the funds of this trust; 
and I advise the Trustees that they do not change any such 
investment except in response to the most urgent and extra- 
ordinary necessity; and I request the Trustees to see to it 
that at all times these companies be managed and operated 
by the men best qualified for such a service." 

Meanwhile the benevolence had grown im- 
mensely, as was always the case with anything that 
Mr. Duke undertook. It had been broadened be- 
yond the communities this power system served to 
include in many respects the whole of the two Caro- 



22- 



The Eighth Anniversary 



Unas, and even to extend aid to hospitalization be- 
yond their confines. It had been largely increased in 
amount beyond the Duke Power stock originally 
contemplated by additions from what Mr. Duke 
had made in enterprises elsewhere. $40,000,000 in 
value was put in at the Endowment's creation, one- 
fifth of the income has to be accumulated until an- 
other $40,000,000 has been added to the principal, 
and the will probably added another $40,000,000 
in value at Mr. Duke's death. So far the income of 
the Endowment has been derived approximately 
39 % from Duke Power stock and 61 % from other 
sources. 

The objects of the benevolence had also been 
largely expanded. Mr. Duke paid fitting tribute to 
the great influence on his life of the Methodist 
Church and its circuit riders. For this purpose he 
included two provisions: One was for deserving 
superannuated preachers and the widows and or- 
phans of deceased preachers of that persuasion in 
this state, under which there will have been dis- 
tributed $189,541.50 at the end of this year; the 
other was for building and maintaining Methodist 
Churches in the sparsely settled districts of this state, 
under which a total of $582,946.66 has been ex- 
pended for over 1,200 churches, having congrega- 
tions aggregating over 125,000 persons. 



The Duke Endowment 



23 



He also remembered orphans, whose care he de- 
clared '*a worthy cause, productive of truly bene- 
ficial results, in which all good citizens should have 
an abiding interest/' The provision embraces both 
white and colored, whole and half orphans of the 
two Carolinas, and under it a total of $81 1,504. 1 1 
has already been distributed among 48 orphanages, 
located at Asheville, Banner Elk, Barium Springs, 
Belmont, Black Mountain, Bostic, Camden, Charles- 
ton, Charlotte, Clayton, Clinton, Columbia, Dallas, 
Durham, Elon College, Falcon, Franklin, Golds- 
boro, Greensboro, Greenville, Greenwood, High 
Point, Lexington, McCormick, Middlesex, Naz- 
areth, Oxford, Penland, Raleigh, Rockwell, Spar- 
tanburg, Sumter, Thomasville, Union Mills, Win- 
ston-Salem and York, 

Education received an enlarged and extensive 
share. Here the principal object is Trinity College, 
which Mr. Duke^s father had been largely instru- 
mental in locating and maintaining at Durham. It 
has been erected through Mr. Duke's benefactions 
into the magnificent Duke University we have to- 
day. In addition, we have the handsome allotment 
for its operation and the substantial sums for the 
operation of Furman University, a Baptist insti- 
tution at Greenville, S. C. ; Davidson College, a 
well known Presbyterian institution in this state; 



24 



The Eighth Anniversary 



and Johnson C. Smith University, an institution 
for colored people at this city. Under these pro- 
visions over $19,000,000 has been expended in thus 
reconstructing Trinity College according to Mr. 
Duke's ideas and wishes, and $5,842,073.88 has 
been distributed for the operation of the four insti- 
tutions mentioned. 

Mr. Duke was greatly interested in education. 
He had thought deeply on the subject and enter- 
tained strong convictions which he thought so 
worthy of serious consideration that he took occa- 
sion to express them in the Indenture establishing 
the Endowment for the guidance of its Trustees and 
of Duke University. Among other things he said: 

"I have selected Duke University as one of the principal 
objects of this trust because I recognize that education, when 
conducted along sane and practical, as opposed to dogmatic 
and theoretical, lines, is, next to religion, the greatest civil- 
izing influence." 

Such a statement is most refreshing and salutary 
in these depression days when all sorts of * 'isms' * 
are being vociferously hailed as sovereign panaceas, 
especially by some of those connected with our edu- 
cational institutions whose inexperience in every- 
day affairs has caused them to lose the practical in 
the theoretical. No such nostrums appealed to Mr. 
Duke. As his quoted words show, and all who 



The Duke Endowment 



25 



knew him can abundantly testify, he was a well- 
balanced man of sound common sense and great 
practical judgment, who stood four-square on the 
principles which underlie our American government, 
believing that they constituted the best means 
whereby necessary individualism could attain its per- 
fection, as illustrated in industry by his own life 
and in official life by Abraham Lincoln, whom he 
greatly admired. 

So essential were these views deemed by Mr. 
Duke that he authorized the Trustees of the En- 
dowment to withhold its benefits even from Duke 
University, should that institution **in their judg- 
ment" be not "operated in a manner calculated to 
achieve the results intended/' And to this end he 
advised that university to secure for its officers, 
trustees and faculty men of ''outstanding character, 
ability and vision,** and to admit as students only 
those ' 'whose previous record shows a character, de- 
termination and application evincing a wholesome 
and real ambition for life/* 

Hospitalization was added as a major object of 
the Endowment. If possible, it appealed more 
strongly to Mr. Duke than perhaps any of the other 
purposes. The reason for this was that Mr. Duke's 
study of this subject led him to realize that hospi- 
talization was a splendid cause for which there was 



26 



The Eighth Anniversary 



great need and very inadequate help. His program 
for aiding hospitalization has two parts. The major 
and dominant part is what is known as the free bed 
payments. These assist existing hospitals, not oper- 
ated for private gain, in doing the charitable work 
so necessary, and which they cannot turn away, by 
paying to each of them for each day a bed is occu- 
pied by a charitable patient such sum, not exceeding 
One Dollar per bed per day, as the available funds 
will permit when ratably distributed. For this part 
there has been expended $3,428,695.95. The second 
and subordinate part is the use of any excess in such 
funds over that required for the first part in helping 
to build and equip hospitals, not operated for pri- 
vate gain, in communities where there is inadequate 
hospital service. For this part there has been ex- 
pended $1,691,677.00. This makes a total of 
$5,120,372.95 expended for hospitals so far. 

The Trustees have thus helped to build or equip 
hospitals located at Abbeville, Albemarle, Asheboro, 
Banner Elk, Bennettsville, Biltmore, Boone, Char- 
lotte, Columbia, Conway, Crossnore, Durham, 
Elizabeth City, Elkin, Florence, Goldsboro, Greens- 
boro, Henderson, Lumberton, Marion, Monck's 
Corner, Mooresville, Morehead City, Morganton, 
MuUins, Newberry, Pinehurst, Raleigh, Roanoke 
Rapids, Sanford, Southport, Spartanburg, Sumter, 



The Duke Endowment 



27 



Sylva, Thomasville, Tryon, Wadesboro, Waynes- 
ville, Wilmington and Winston-Salem. 

The Trustees have made the free bed payments 
to the public hospitals at the above named places, 
except an uncompleted few, and, in addition, to 
other such hospitals located at Aiken, Anderson, 
Asheville, Camden, Carthage, Charleston, Fayette- 
ville, Fletcher, Gastonia, Greenville, Greenwood, 
Halifax, Hamlet, Hendersonville, Huntersville, 
Jamestown, Kinston, Laurens, New Bern, Newton, 
Oxford, Roaring Gap, Rocky Mount, Rutherford- 
ton, Saluda, Shelby, Six Mile, Summerville, Tar- 
boro. Union, Washington, Weaverville, White 
Rock, Wilson and Wrightsville Sound. 

Mark these hospitals on a map of the Carolinas, 
see how they dot those states, note that your local 
institution is included in the benefits, and you will 
begin to realize both your own personal interest in 
the Endowment and the meaning of just this one 
of its activities. Add in your mind its provisions 
for schools, churches, orphanages, and you are even 
then far short of a complete vision of this princely 
gift of a stalwart son to his beloved home people. 
You have still to do the gigantic problem in geo- 
metrical progression of multiplying each of these 
objects by the recurring amounts it will get as the 
great forever unfolds. 



28 



The Eighth Anniversary 



Magnificent, marvelous, you exclaim. Yes, all of 
that; for truly the Endowment has a boundless 
sweep and a surge sublime that blends with the 
ocean of years. And yet is it not just once more the 
simple, old, old story of Jesus and His love? *lf I 
amount to anything in this world,*' said Mr. Duke, 
*1 owe it to my Daddy and the Methodist Church.'' 
Not by might, nor by power, but by my spirit, 
saith the Lord of Hosts. 

Contemplate the man, the life, the work, already 
standing clear and lofty on the receding pages of 
history, and you perceive of a certainty the divine 
hand of Providence again bringing to a troubled 
world through His chosen instrument the glad tid- 
ings of great joy which have ever been the mark of 
true religion since Christ went about doing good 
on earth — the blind see, the deaf hear, the lepers 
are cleansed, and the poor have the Gospel preached 
unto them. Aye, even more than that, it is saying 
to suffering humanity everywhere — let not your 
heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid; God is 
still in His heaven and all will be right with the 
world, if we only give God a chance! 



The Interest of 
The Duke Endowment In 
Higher Education 

Doctor W. J. McGlothlin 
President, Fur man University 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

ONE of the most marked characteristics of the 
life of Mr. J. B. Duke was his devotion to 
the interests of the people of the two Carolinas. 
This is seen in the location of so many of his great 
industrial plants within the borders of these states, 
in the development of their water power, and in 
many other ways. As he approached the end of his 
life his chief concern seemed to be to dispose of his 
great wealth in such ways as would best and longest 
serve his beloved people. In his arrangements for 
assisting the orphanages and hospitals of the two 
states he made provision for the helpless children 
and the suffering poor in a manner so beautiful and 
gracious, as to call down perpetual blessings on his 
name. But he was not interested in the helpless, the 
suffering, and the needy alone. They appealed to 
his sympathy and elicited his help, but he knew that 



30 



The Eighth Anniversary 



the future welfare of these states depended upon the 
intelligence, character, and competence of the strong 
young people. Orphanages and hospitals, however 
important and blessed in their ministries, can never 
make a great people. Only the homes, the churches, 
and the schools can do that. And so Mr. Duke did 
what he could directly for the churches and ministers 
of his own communion, and then turned to the field 
of education for his highest and most striking service 
to the people of the two Carolinas. A democracy 
must have competent leadership — men and women 
of high character, intelligence, and devotion to the 
common weal. Such a leadership is necessarily pro- 
duced, if produced at all, in the colleges and the 
universities of the country. Accordingly, Mr. Duke 
chose four colleges situated in the two Carolinas as 
the objects of his largest benefactions. The foun- 
dations of these institutions, already laid, rested 
securely upon fundamental Christian convictions 
and ideals, while their origin, history, and traditions 
gave assurance of continued efforts in their class- 
rooms to prepare a leadership consisting of men and 
women of culture, competence, and high character. 
These colleges represent both the white and colored 
races, and belong to the three great religious bodies 
of the South. By selecting and strengthening these 
four institutions, Mr. Duke did what he could do 
for the people of the Carolinas through college edu- 



The Duke Endowment 



31 



cation. Each of these institutions has been enabled 
through his beneficience greatly to enlarge and 
strengthen its services not only to its own support- 
ing constituency but to the general cultural interests 
of both Carolinas. 

But the capstone of Mr. Duke's magnificent work 
for higher education was the founding of Duke 
University. This institution is already the pride of 
the Carolinas and is recognized as one of the great 
universities of the country. In this institution he 
placed at our doors equipment for the highest pos- 
sible training of young men and women for the 
great professions of medicine, law, the ministry, and 
teaching, but also created a center for the preser- 
vation, diffusion, and expansion of knowledge and 
culture whose possibilities are immeasurable and 
whose services will be perpetual. 

Mr. Duke was a great organizer, a great manu- 
facturer and a great merchant. The Duke Endow- 
ment in its broad conception and its details is an 
expression of his genius. He knew men and the high 
character, great business ability and devotion of the 
men whom he selected as Trustees of The Duke En- 
dowment guarantee the safety, permanence, and 
wise handling of its funds. What the wisdom of 
man can do for the welfare of these great educa- 
tional institutions has been done. 



32 



The Eighth Anniversary 



We are celebrating the eighth anniversary of the 
establishment of The Duke Endowment. These 
eight years have served to deepen and widen the tre- 
mendous impression made by the announcement of 
that event. The wisdom and gracious generosity of 
this great gift have been recognized more and more 
as the years have passed. And we of the Carolinas 
can never forget that it was one of our own, a son 
of this soil, who gave to us this great boon. Bless- 
ings and honor from a grateful people rest forever 
on the name of James B. Duke. 



The Interest of 
The Duke Endowment In 
Medical Education 

Doctor Robert Wilson 
Dean, Medical College of the State of 
South Carolina 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

IN A time like the present when men's hearts are 
failing them through fear and when upon all 
sides we encounter doubt and uncertainty concern- 
ing the stability, or even the validity, of the estab- 
lished institutions of our existing social order this 
service seems of especial significance commemorating 
as it does the establishment of an endowment hav- 
ing for its purpose the promotion of religion, higher 
education and physical health, essential foundation 
stones for the building of any successful social and 
economic structure. In combining these activities the 
founder of The Duke Endowment was looking into 
the future with unclouded vision, not seeking to 
perpetuate his memory in idle monuments but in 
institutions vital to civilization. 



34 



The Eighth Anniversary 



It is my part this afternoon to speak of the 
medical phase of the Endowment's activities. One 
of the most difficult problems which medicine is fac- 
ing today concerns the utilization of the machinery 
of modern medical science for the benefit of all who 
are in need. This new machinery is not handled as 
easily as the old machinery which was simpler in its 
structure and required for its manipulation less tech- 
nical skill. The solution of the problem is by no 
means easy, but however it may be worked out ulti- 
mately it is clear that education and training are 
fundamental in every program of health conserva- 
tion. The education of men and women in the 
science of medicine and their training in the art of 
its application to the problems of the prevention 
and the care of illness are absolutely necessary if the 
blessings of modern medicine are to be adequately 
administered and distributed. This The Duke En- 
dowment is accomplishing directly through the 
building of a great medical school and teaching hos- 
pital at Durham where the ancient traditions of the 
science and art of medicine will find new exempli- 
fication in their modern applications. Indirectly 
through the aid extended to the hospital in Charles- 
ton which supplies teaching facilities to the Medical 
College of the State of South Carolina this old seat 
of medical culture receives additional sustenance and 
strength. Through these medical schools which are 



The Duke Endowment 



35 



providing physicians whose preparation will insure 
the highest type of medical care, the beneficent activ- 
ities of the Endowment are reaching the people of 
the two Carolinas. 

Another very serious phase of medical care is cre- 
ated by the growing tendency of physicians to settle 
in larger towns where opportunities and facilities 
are greater, which has created a grave situation in 
very many rural communities. Frequent appeals for 
physicians come to my office from small towns and 
country districts, like the cry from Macedonia for 
help, and it is becoming increasingly difficult to 
supply them. The cause of this difficulty probably 
is too complex for solution by any single measure, 
but the effort which The Duke Endowment is mak- 
ing to solve it is very significant. **The advance in 
the science of medicine . . . makes hospital facilities 
essential for obtaining the best results in the practice 
of medicine and surgery'' wrote Mr. Duke with full 
understanding of the position which hospitals have 
come to occupy as important factors in the diagnosis 
and treatment of disease as well as educational cen- 
ters. Some conception of what has been accom- 
plished may be obtained when we learn that through 
the contributions made by The Duke Endowment 
the ratio of general hospital beds to population dur- 
ing the five-year period, 1924 to 1930, increased 



36 



The Eighth Anniversary 



20% in North Carolina and 27% in South Caro- 
lina, while the increase for the country as a whole 
was only 18%. The assistance thus rendered hos- 
pitals in small communities enables these institu- 
tions to provide better facilities for medical and 
surgical care and so to offer a higher type of service 
than would be possible otherwise. The improve- 
ment in such hospital facilities with the greater 
opportunities thereby afforded for high grade work 
likewise is destined to make the practice of medicine 
more attractive to better trained medical men and 
thus insure to the smaller districts medical attention 
comparable to that obtained in the larger centers. 



The superannuate Mi nister 
and the Rural Church 

The Reverend J. B. Hurley 
Ladies and Gentlemen: 

I AM glad of the opportunity to speak a brief 
word touching two special interests as related to 
The Duke Endowment: the superannuate minister 
and the rural church, both of which lay very close 
to the heart of James B. Duke. 

The itinerant "circuit rider ' and the rural church 
came early into the life of this man. In his youthful 
days in the rural sections of central North Carolina, 
practically the only contact with the outside world, 
about which he dreamed of conquering, came 
through periodical visits of the itinerant minister, 
his social contacts in the neighborhood in which he 
lived were made at the little country church near 
his father's home, and the friendships made then 
lasted through life. 

It is said that his father often talked about these 
men of God, who preached the gospel, baptized the 
young, performed marriage ceremonies and buried 



38 



The Eighth Anniversary 



the dead, and often remarked about the treasures 
these men must have accumulated in heaven. 

It is not surprising therefore, that as early as 
1915 Mr. Duke began making provisions for the 
care of the superannuate ministers, their w^idows 
and children, and for the construction and mainte- 
nance of rural churches. From 1915 to 1925 an 
annual gift of $10,000 was made by Mr. Duke to 
the superannuate ministers. A total of $100,000 
was distributed during this period. From 1915 to 
1925 $15,000 was distributed annually for the 
purpose of supplementing the salaries of ministers 
in the rural sections of North Carolina. Since 1926 
these funds have been distributed by the Trustees of 
The Duke Endowment through Duke University. 
From December 11, 1924, through October 12, 
1932, a total of $759,065.20 had been distributed 
for the support of the superannuated ministers, and 
for the construction and maintenance of rural 
churches. When the $250,000 contributed from 
1915 to 1925 is added, the total contribution for 
these purposes by Mr. Duke reaches the sum of 
$1,009,064.20. 

The money available for superannuated ministers 
is distributed at Christmas time and is prorated on 
the basis of the amount given from the Annual 
Conference Superannuate funds. 



The Duke Endowment 



39 



The money in the building fund of the rural 
church section of The Duke Endowment is used **to 
build Methodist Churches under and connected with 
a conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, located in the State of North Carolina, but 
only those churches located in the sparsely settled 
rural districts of the State of North Carolina and 
not in any city, town or hamlet incorporated or un- 
incorporated, having a population in excess of 1,500 
people, according to the then last Federal census." 

The funds available for the maintenance of rural 
churches are used in two ways: First, to supplement 
the salaries of rural ministers, to bring them to the 
minimum income for actual support, and. Second, 
special opportunities have been found for the church 
work in the country during the summer months. 
During this season the children are not in school 
and hence have more time for religious training and 
instruction, the homes of the country people are 
more accessible for pastoral visitation, food more 
plentiful for entertaining preachers and group meet- 
ings, and the weather more favorable. For these 
reasons many country preachers have found need 
for additional services during the summer months. 
The maintenance fund is giving help in this service. 
Specially fitted theological students have been sent 
into these sections to assist the regular pastors. In 



40 



The Eighth Anniversary 



1931, 67 such men were sent out for various kinds 
of v^ork in these country regions. This procedure 
not only assists the rural preacher in his work but 
also provides a medium for practical training for 
theological students. 

As a presiding elder for a number of years I had 
the opportunity to observe at close hand the ever 
increasing benefits this fund brings to the rural 
church, and to witness as well as to enjoy the light 
and gladness it brings to the retired minister s home. 

Superannuation, the day every Methodist preacher 
dreads and defers as long as possible, need be re- 
garded no longer as a vale of sorrow, or wall of 
wailing or region of defeat, but in a sense as the 
real beginning of the Beulah Land of a glorious and 
crowning ministry. 

The spirit and vision of this man, whose name 
we shall ever delight to honor, declare him at once 
a generous, broad-minded and far-seeing Christian 
statesman. 



The Interest of 



The Duke Endowment in the Care 
of Dependent Children 

The Reverend C. K. Proctor 
Superintendent, Oxford Orphanage 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

THERE is no doubt that it takes a great man to 
make a million dollars. It takes a still greater 
man to give away a million dollars and it takes a 
still greater man to give away a million dollars in 
an intelligent, far-reaching manner that will benefit 
the largest number of people. When this accomplish- 
ment is multiplied many times it likewise multiplies 
many times the bigness of the man. 

Under the indenture of Mr. James B. Duke and 
under the provision of his will various interests of 
humankind in the two Carolinas have been con- 
sidered. These have been enumerated here today and 
referred to in splendid style. 

The Duke Endowment stands out prominently 
in its provision for the needs of the unfortunate — 
there is no group of the unfortunate that is more 



42 



The Eighth Anniversary 



deserving of consideration nor that will bring greater 
dividends when provided for than the dependent 
orphan children. The bigness of the man and the 
tenderness of his desire to help is reflected in the pro- 
vision of the indenture which includes the orphan- 
ages of the two Carolinas. It is not clear how Mr. 
Duke was sold on the idea of orphanage aid unless 
in his own early life bereft of a mother's care his 
heart was inclined toward motherless children. Un- 
der the provisions of the indenture, 1 % of the net 
amount of the income from The Duke Endowment 
not retained for additions to the corpus of the estate 
shall be paid and distributed to and among such 
organizations, institutions, agencies and/or societies 
whether public or private by whatever name not 
operated for private gain and exclusively operated 
for the benefit of whole or half orphans whether 
white or colored when in the states of North and 
South Carolina. Since the establishment of the En- 
dowment and through the year of 1932 The Duke 
Endowment had distributed for the care of orphan- 
ages in the two Carolinas the sum of $811,504.11. 
Contributions were made to 45 institutions in 1932 
which institutions provided care for 6,767 children. 
The amount paid to each institution is based upon 
the number of days that whole and half orphans 
are taken care of in said institutions. The total 
number of orphan days for the 45 institutions in 



The Duke Endowment 



43 



1932 amounted to 1,956.360. The contribution of 
The Duke Endowment in 1932 to the orphanages 
amounted to $144,022.60, which is about 7% cents 
per day for the number of orphan days represented 
by the institutions. It is easy, therefore, to see some- 
thing of the bigness of this bequest. It is not the 
intention that this should decrease in any way the 
support of the institutions from other sources, but 
rather to provide those things that the orphanages 
otherwise would not have. It was genuinely hoped 
that this provision would stimulate other gifts. 
During these times of depression The Duke Endow- 
ment has been as a life line thrown out to sinking 
orphanages by the generous hand of one who loved 
little children. It stands today and will stand in the 
coming days between hundreds — yea thousands of 
helpless children of the two Carolinas and starva- 
tion and despair. It shines as a radiant glow of 
hope to those about whom the black cloud of despair 
has settled and it reveals the tender greatness in the 
heart of the donor which reflects the spirit of Him 
who magnified the child and said, 'Inasmuch as you 
have done it unto one of the least of these you have 
done it unto me.** 



James B, Duke: Man 
and Citizen 

The Honorable Clyde R. Hoey 

Mr. Chairman, and Friends of The Duke 
Endowment: 

IT IS a high privilege to participate in this anni- 
versary occasion and to speak even briefly of the 
dynamic personality whose outstanding benefactions 
are thus commemorated, and I salute today the 
memory of James B. Duke and present him as a 
Man and Citizen, 

It is difiicult to accurately measure the stature of 
a man and to properly appraise his true qualities 
and real worth. The world too often estimates a 
man by his possessions and counts his worth by 
what he has accumulated. It frequently esteems him 
for his attainments and honors him for his achieve- 
ments, but the popular idea is that a great success 
is measured by the length of figures which express 
his worldly wealth. 

It is not always possible to distinguish a man 
from his possessions and view him apart from the 
things which surround and encompass him. Fortu- 



The Duke Endowment 



45 



nately there have been and are a few men of large 
wealth who are not obscured by it, and in recalling 
such you can still see the Man towering over and 
above all that he possesses like a lofty mountain 
peak, revealed in bold outline against the vaulted 
sky line of the world's vision and thought. Such a 
man was James Buchanan Duke! 

He was blessed with a great parentage — the 
youngest son of Washington Duke — a man of rare 
sense, wise judgment and great heart. He was born 
in the trying days of the fifties on an Orange County 
farm, and he came into the rich heritage of the 
opportunity to work and was privileged to know 
something of the struggles and cares of the average 
man, and to share the hardships and privations of 
those days, and to feel the thrill of satisfaction over 
daily tasks faithfully performed and hard work 
well done. 

Young Duke early evinced that aptitude for busi- 
ness which later made him a world merchantman 
and a colossal leader in business and industry. Given 
only a country school education he entered business 
at 18 years of age and began to build the stature of 
a real man, and this opened the way for the great 
success which he achieved in so many and varied 
lines of activity and endeavor. 



46 



The Eighth Anniversary 



I shall not review in detail his business career. It 
is a vital part of the history of the Carolinas and 
of America. The manufacture of tobacco engaged 
much of his time and thought and his company 
sent its products to the remotest parts of the world 
and he became the premier figure of that mighty 
industry. Into the great cotton manufacturing busi- 
ness he put much of his capital and thought and 
the South gained the ascendancy in the manufacture 
of cotton over New England and North Carolina 
wrested from Massachusetts the supremacy in this 
industry. His was a large contribution to this result. 

Among his coveted successes was the harnessing 
of the water that had hitherto been running to waste 
in the rivers of the Carolinas — centering along the 
Catawba — and producing unlimited power to light 
the homes, towns and cities and to supply power 
for the industries of this section. Now the develop- 
ment of power is regarded as commonplace, but Mr. 
Duke was a real pioneer in this field when he visual- 
ized the day when this mighty force would serve 
the average man in every phase of life and be so 
generally utilized by the public that it would become 
indispensable. 

The whole career of Mr. Duke was marked by 
unusual success. He amassed a large fortune, he 
lived a full life, he blazed many new trails in in- 



The Duke Endowment 



47 



dustry, he travelled the high paths of service, he 
shared community responsibilities, he envisioned the 
crying needs of two commonwealths, he marshalled 
his resources and committed his wealth permanently 
to the exalted task of caring for the orphan, edu- 
cating the youth, healing the sick, ministering to the 
retired heroes of the Cross and building houses of 
worship to the Prince of Peace. 

Above his wealth in land and buildings, farms 
and factories, stocks and bonds, goods and gold, 
there was that indefinable and unmeasurable wealth 
in spirit which enabled him to master himself and 
conquer selfishness so that he could see the everlast- 
ing things that matter to a nation, state or indi- 
vidual, and thus extend himself into the uncharted 
centuries of the future, and though dead he yet lives 
and serves in the magnificent concept which he 
divined as his legacy to humanity and his gift to 
posterity, 

James B. Duke the Man is bigger than his bene- 
factions, larger than his gifts, more royal than his 
generosity, broader than his charity and as immortal 
as his faith. A long and varied business career in the 
field of keen competition naturally aroused business 
antagonisms and it is not surprising that if there 
were those who assailed Mr. Duke as an austere man 
and master, gathering where he had not strewn and 



48 



The Eighth Anniversary 



reaping where he had not sown, but such failed to 
glimpse the whole man and to see the full picture. 
The whole history of the race in business, politics 
and religion emphasizes the fact that strong, domi- 
nant figures appear ruthless and uncompromising in 
their march of progress, brooking no opposition and 
driving relentlessly forward. The statesmen of our 
own day in America have evidenced these same quali- 
ties. You would not expect to see a Grover Cleve- 
land, Theodore Roosevelt or Woodrow Wilson 
yielding a contention or surrendering a position, but 
the very imperial mastery of the man asserted itself 
in the daring and courageous advance which some- 
times ran rough shod over opposition. James B. 
Duke was a statesman in business. 

One of the most accurate standards by which to 
measure a man is the opinion and regard of his busi- 
ness associates, his contemporaries in service, and his 
employees and those who serve him. By common 
consent Mr. Duke was always accorded the seat at 
the head of the table and where he sat was head. 
His associates recognized his superior judgment, his 
unfailing wisdom and his fair-mindedness. They 
believed in him whole-heartedly and trusted him 
supremely. He was deferential, courteous, consid- 
erate, and his bigness was never more in evidence 
than when dealing with his employees, or even with 



The Duke Endowment 



49 



those who rendered the menial service. Whether dis- 
cussing great business affairs with his associates, or 
consulting with his attorneys, or conferring with his 
farm manager, or passing a friendly greeting to the 
house servants, he was always the big, broad, fine 
type of man, with a great human heart, who loved 
his family, cared for his kindred, ministered to his 
day and generation and perpetuated his generosity 
in a Foundation of everlasting benefactions. 

There is a very close relationship between the man 
and citizen. It would be impossible to rise to the 
stature of a big man without recognizing and assum- 
ing the duties and responsibilities of citizenship. Mr. 
Duke met this requirement fully. He was actively 
and vitally interested in public affairs and his interest 
began in the smallest unit of government and ran 
through all the agencies which function in a govern- 
mental way. There was nothing provincial about 
him as a citizen. With the patriot's conception of 
the duty of the citizen his first interest was in the 
community, then the State and nation, and after- 
wards the intriguing thought of world citizenship 
and responsibility. He believed in and loved his own 
State. It was the home of his forbears, and the scene 
of his activity as a young man. He cherished its 
ideals and dared to picture for it a great destiny. 
He was a typical American. The principles of our 



50 



The Eighth Anniversary 



Constitution and Bill of Rights, the precepts of our 
government and the ideals of its founders became a 
part of his very life, and he saw in the Stars and 
Stripes the finest symbol of human rights and the 
divinest emblem of universal democracy to be found 
in all the earth. But the sweep of his vision and the 
currents of his helpful sympathy and cooperation 
swept across the waste of waters and reached the 
farthest outposts of the world's civilization. And 
his benefactions followed his vision. Certainly it is 
just to say that the attributes and virtues of the 
model citizen flowered in him. 

You would expect a composite man and citizen 
to be interested in the affairs which concern the 
whole people, and to share the burdens of the public 
in proportion to his ability and resources. Many 
men of large wealth succeed in doing this and feel 
that they have discharged the full measure of their 
duty. And this may be true. But Mr. Duke was 
not content to stop with this. He wanted to do 
more. He was intent upon travelling the extra mile 
and then many added miles. He belongs to that rare 
class of men who control their wealth, instead of 
permitting their riches to control them. He was will- 
ing while he yet lived to part company with his 
millions for the cause which he pondered in his heart 
and so enthusiastically planned and which found 



The Duke Endowment 



51 



full fruition in The Duke Endowment, the exe- 
cution of which great instrument we commemorate 
today. 

The completeness with which he made provision 
for the threefold nature of man — physical, intel- 
lectual and spiritual — is evidenced by a mere ref- 
erence to this marvelous document. He began with 
the child in his help to the orphans, he provided 
for physical ministrations to all ages, classes and 
races in his aid to the hospitals, and then made pro- 
vision for the physical comfort and support for the 
preachers in their days of declining health and ad- 
vancing years. Colleges and universities for men and 
women of both races were endowed that liberal edu- 
cation and vast knowledge might be attained by 
those who seek intellectual culture. Churches are 
aided and established, if need be, for the cultivation 
of the spiritual nature. The whole man is encom- 
passed in these provisions and aid given at every 
angle of his nature. 

Friends of Mr. Duke like to recall the varied fund 
of knowledge which he had gained by his contact 
with people and his experience in a world of big 
things. But after all of his years of life in the big 
cities and his world contacts he was continually 
quoting his father as the ultimate authority in wis- 
dom and judgment. He would bring to a climax 



52 



The Eighth Anniversary 



his own thought by a declaration, **As my old 
Father used to say/' and there was no appeal from 
an opinion thus fortified. 

Mr. Duke was a religious man. He did not parade 
his piety or vaunt his religion, but he believed stead- 
fastly in the great fundamental things of life. He 
had unfailing faith in the ministers of the gospel, 
and especially believed in the potency and power of 
the circuit rider of his church. He was a Methodist, 
but there was no sectarianism in his make-up, and 
his great catholic spirit encompassed all denomina- 
tions and all races in a world brotherhood. He wor- 
shipped a great God, he bowed before no small deity, 
he knelt at the shrine of no god made with hands, 
but his was a God powerful enough to spin worlds 
from his finger tips and to save the souls of all the 
sons and daughters of men. He understood the 
spiritual entities of life, and was familiar with the 
declaration of that Old Testament prophet Micah 
who proclaimed that the whole duty of man was 
"To do justly, to love mercy, and walk humbly 
with thy God.** He must have understood the doc- 
trine of the Christianity of the New Testament when 
the Apostle James explains that **pure religion and 
undefiled before God and the Father is this — to visit 
the fatherless and widows in their afflictions and 
keep himself unspotted from the world.** He must 



The Duke Endowment 



53 



also have appropriated somewhat of the spirit of 
the Man of Galilee, as represented by the massive 
sculpture of the Christ, which stands at the entrance 
of Johns Hopkins Hospital and bearing the inscrip- 
tion, ''Come unto me all ye that labor and are heavy 
laden and I will give you rest/' 

If Mr. Duke had lived in Europe he would have 
been officially titled as Earl, or Duke, or Lord, and 
if a subject of His Majesty, the King of England, 
and had conferred the benefactions upon that land 
that he has given to his own, his body would be 
resting in Westminster Abbey among Britain's im- 
mortal dead. But he lived in America; he was desig- 
nated as "Mr.," the title of an American man and 
citizen, and his body rests under the sacred soil of 
his loved North Carolina, along beside the body of 
his honored father, but his memory shall be revered 
and loved through the cycles of the oncoming cen- 
turies, and men and ministers, women and little 
children, in their evening devotions around their 
firesides will thank God that he lived. 



Sponsoring Committee 

Mr. D. E. Henderson, Chairman 
Charlotte 



NORTH CAROLINA 



Mr. a. B. Andrews Raleigh 

Honorable Josiah Bailey Raleigh 

Reverend A. S. Barnes Raleigh 

Mr. Kemp D. Battle Rocky Mount 

Mrs. S. Westray Battle Asheville 

Dr. Charles E. Brewer Raleigh 

Dr. E. C. Brooks Raleigh 

Mr. J. F. Bruton Wilson 

Mrs. James Campbell Asheville 

Mr. S. B. ChapiN Pinehurst 

Mr. H. p. Cheatham Oxford 

Mr. Cary Dowd Charlotte 

Mr. R. a. Dunn Charlotte 

Mrs. Alma Edgerton Raleigh 

Mr. a. H. Eller Winston-Salem 

Dr. W. p. Few Durham 

Mr. T. a. Finch Thomasville 

Honorable O. Max Gardner Raleigh 

Reverend J. T. Gibbs Pelham 

Mr. Robert W. Glenn Greensboro 

Dr. Frank Porter Graham Chapel Hill 

Mr. James A. Gray Winston-Salem 

Right Reverend W. J. Hafey Raleigh 

Honorable F. W. Hancock, Jr Oxford 

Honorable Thomas J. Harkins Asheville 

Mr. C. J. Harris Sylva 

Colonel Wade Harris Charlotte 



56 



The Eighth Anniversary 



Mr. John Sprunt Hill Durham 

Mr. George Watts Hill Durham 

Reverend J. B. Hurley Lexington 

Mr. Joseph B. Johnston Barium Springs 

Mr. C. E. Kistler Morganton 

Dr. Thurman Kitchin Wake Forest 

Dr. Walter L. Lingle Davidson 

Reverend John P. Manley Nazareth 

Reverend T. F. Marr Brevard 

Mr. D. B. McCrary Asheboro 

Dr. H. L. McCrorey Charlotte 

Honorable A. W. McLean Lumberton 

Dr. Julian Miller Raleigh 

Honorable Cameron Morrison Charlotte 

Right Reverend E. D. Mouzon ' . . . Charlotte 

Honorable Robert N. Page Raleigh 

Dr. James M. Parrott Raleigh 

Right Reverend E. A. Penick Charlotte 

Reverend A. W. Plyler Greensboro 

Mr. Julian Price Greensboro 

Reverend C. K. Proctor Oxford 

Mother Mary Raphael Charlotte 

Mr. W. O. Saunders Elizabeth City 

Dr. S. p. Sebastian Greensboro 

Mr. J. B. Sherrill Concord 

Mr. W. H. Sprunt Wilmington 

Mr. a. L. Stockton Greensboro 

Dr. Samuel L. Stringfield Waynesville 

Dr. W. C. Tate Banner Elk 

Mr. Edgar H. Tufts Banner Elk 

Dr. J. B. Whittington Winston-Salem 

Mr. Herman Wiel Goldsboro 

Mr. O. V. WOOSLEY Winston-Salem 



The Duke Endowment 57 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Dr. Robert Abell Chester 

Dr. L. T. Baker Columbia 

Mr. F. O. Bates Charleston 

Dr. J. Moss Beeler Spartanburg 

Sister Mary Bernardine Charleston 

Mrs. Homer S. Blackwell Laurens 

Honorable Ibra C. Blackwood Columbia 

Honorable James F. Byrnes Spartanburg 

Sister Mary Camilla Greenville 

Mr. C. W. Coker, Jr Hartsville 

Right Reverend K. G. Finley Columbia 

Honorable G. Lyles Glenn Chester 

Honorable William E. Gonzales Columbia 

Reverend A. K. Gwynn Greenville 

Mr. J. H. Hope Columbia 

Mr. R. S. Huntington Greenville 

Dr. a. T. Jamison Greenwood 

Dr. James P. Kinard Rock Hill 

Mr. John Law Spartanburg 

Mr. J. J. LawtoN Hartsville 

Dr. L. Ross Lynn Clinton 

Mr. H. H. McGill Columbia 

Dr. W. J. McGlothLIN Greenville 

Mrs. a. F. McKissick Greenville 

Dr. F. H. McLeod Florence 

Mrs. Bradley Morrah Greenville 

Commandant Rex Munselle Greenville 

Mr. Emslie Nicholson Union 

Mr. J. M. NiCKLES Abbeville 

Reverend Thomas P. Noe York 

Mr. Neill O'Donnell Sumter 



58 



The Eighth Anniversary 



Mr. B. H. Peace Greenville 

Dr. E. W. Sikes Clemson College 

Honorable E. D. Smith Lynchburg 

General Charles P. Summerall Charleston 

Right Reverend E. M. Walsh Charleston 

Dr. R. S. Wilkinson Orangeburg 

Mrs. Minnie E. Williamson Columbia 

Dr. Robert Wilson Charleston 

Dr. Frank Wrenn Anderson 



Local Sponsoring Committee 

Mr. David Ovens, Chairman 



Mr. H. C. Alexander 

Mr. Louis H. Asbury 

Mr. W. H. Belk 

Mr. James A. Bell 

Mr. E. R. Bucher 

Mr. E. T. Cansler, Sr. 

Mrs. Guy T. Carswell 

Mr. David Clark 

Mr. Francis Clarkson 

Mr. Claude Cochrane 

Mrs. Stuart W. Cramer, Jr. 

Mr. J. B. Efird 

Mr. Lee Folger 

Reverend Ambrose Gallagher 

Dr. Edgar Gammon 

Dr. R. L. Gibbon 

Mr. W. G. Gilks 

Mr. Thomas Glasgow 

Mr. Earle J. Gluck 

Mr. B. B. Gossett 

Mrs. Bailey T. Groome 

Dr. James F. Hardie 

Mrs. B. Shaw Howell 

Reverend John L. Jackson 

Mr. Curtis B. Johnson 

Mr. C. W. Johnston 

Mrs. Horace Johnston 

Colonel T. L. Kirkpatrick 

Mr. Clarence Kuester 



The Eighth Anniversary 



Mr. Charles E. Lambeth 

Mr. Julian H. Little 

Dr. Luther Little 

Mrs. John P. Lucas 

Mr. Robert A. Mayer 

Mr. E. L. Mason 

Reverend E. N. Orr 

Mr. Frank Orr 

Reverend W. W. Peele 

Reverend C. M. Pickens 

Mr. W. E. Price 

Mr. J. B. Pridgen 

Mr. a. L. Roberts 

Mrs. R. Lee Rutzler 

Mr. John M. Scott 

Mr. J. H. Separk 

Mr. Victor Shaw 

Reverend John W. Shackford 

Mr. Frank Sherrill 

Mr. H. C. Sherrill 

Mr. Morgan B. Spier 

Mr. J. A. Stokes 

Mr. a. T. Summey 

Mr. C. R. Swinney 

Mr. C. W. Tillett, Jr. 

Dr. John H. Tucker 

Mr. H. M. Victor 

Mr. H. M. Wade 

Reverend R. D. Ware 

Dr. a. M. Whisnant 

Mr. p. C. Whitlock 

Mr. C. a. Williams 

Mr. W. H. Wood 



e University Alumni Committee 

Mr. Henry Fisher, Chairman 



Mr. Spencer Bell 

Mr. Whiteford S. Blakeney, Jr. 

Mr. Hugh C. Boyer 

Mr. L. E. Brown 

Mr. Charles Bundy 

Mr. John Dempster 

Mr. Paul Ervin 

Mr. Leonard Graham 

Mr. Paul Gurley 

Mr. George P. Harris 

Mr. Roy Hunter 

Mr. George Ivey 

Reverend Carl King 

Mr. John Lineberger 

Mr. H. I. McDouGLE 

Mr. John Moore 

Mr. F. Grainger Pierce 

Mr. J. Ralph Rone 

Mr. Louis L. Rose 

Mr. Kermit Sherrill 

Mr. Paul M. Sherrill 

Mr. John H. Small, Jr. 

Dr. Frank C. Smith 

Mr. Sinclair Stewart 

Mr. Henry E. Thomas, Jr. 

Mr. Ralph Warren